INDUSTRY ON ARACHAEOLOGY AND INDUSTRIAL ARACHAEOLOGY: SEKA IZMIT PAPER FACTORY
Bilge Köse*, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ayse Güliz Bilgin Altınöz*
*The Graduate Program of Restoration and Preservation of Historic Monuments and Sites, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey
Reference: Kose, B. & Bilgin Altinöz, A.G. Industry on Archaeology and Industrial Archaeology: SEKA Izmit Paper Factory, "VII Latin American Colloquium on the Industrial Heritage", Havana, March 2016.
The de-facto definition of archaeology is the study of human activities in the past periods, where industrial revolution is the most recent one of these periods. In other words, in the continuity of time and place, industrial heritage places are forming the very top layer of all the evidences from historic periods.
During preservation of a multi-layered cultural heritage place, ignoring one of the layers and “choosing one layer over the other” is the main treat towards the cultural significance of the place. The top layer is generally the most favorable one to lose, as a result of misevaluating their values, such as dominating the “age” and “aesthetic” values over “social” or “symbolic” values.
In this sense, SEKA Izmit Paper Factory is a good representative to industrial heritage places as the top layer of a multi-layered cultural heritage sites. SEKA Izmit Paper Factory was founded in 1930s, as one of the first industrial networks in Turkish Republic. It was a project by state, aiming to create economic and social transformation in the new country. During its groundbreaking in 1934 some archaeological remains, the very first findings belonging to the capital city “Nicomedia” of an ancient civilization (300BC), came to light. Today some segments of SEKA Izmit Paper Factory Campus is registered as a cultural heritage and its regeneration project is in progress.
This paper argues the values of industrial heritage places as the “younger” members of our cultural past and discusses the treats towards them through a multi-layered industrial heritage site: SEKA Izmit Paper Factory.
The de-facto definition of archaeology is the scientific study of material evidences from past human life and activities. Thus, the historic period of the discipline starts from first appearance of human and onwards. In historical urban settlements, material evidences of human activities can be followed as successive layers from bottom to top (as bottom refers to older, top refers to most current period). Industrial archaeology, which is defined in TICCIH Nihny Tagil Charter as “an interdisciplinary method of studying all the evidence (…) created for or by industrial processes” (TICCIH 2003) is a sub discipline of archaeology. The historical period of principal interest extends forward from the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, which is a relatively new period. Thus, industrial archaeology studies almost the top layer of evidences from past human life and activities and if the historical urban settlement is currently an industrial city, one of the top layers is formed by industrial culture.
However, while preserving and presenting the successive archaeological layers of different periods, the questions of what and how to preserve creates a conflict between the layers. When the top layer is a product of industrial culture, it becomes easier to destroy it due to general misunderstanding of its values. However, in the continuity of time and place, each period and layer has an equal importance. Co-existence of these layers creates the sustainability of city’s historical continuity. Urban archaeology, which is another sub-discipline of archaeology which studies the Urban archaeology; the layers of different periods and the relation between those layers (Bilgin 1996). Urban archaeology studies consist of three phases: Survey, documentation-presentation and evaluation. During survey, data about the layers are collected via archaeological excavations, archival studies and literature surveys from top the bottom. In the phase of documentation and evaluation, with the light of collected data, each period is evaluated in itself and separate plans (diachronic plans) are created. Then, these plans are superimposed to create a volumetric plan (planometric view) of the city and presented from bottom to top. In the evaluation phase, each level is assessed within the context of top layer; the current condition of the city. By the use of superimposed periods and layers, the continuations and interruptions as well as the identity and risk zones of the city are determined.
Izmit, is a good representative of multi-layered urban settlements and a proper applicant for being a case for an urban archaeology study. From its ancient period till today’s modern industrial city, Izmit has a rooted history. Despite the severe earthquakes in its history, it has always been an important urban settlement due to its strategic location.
Izmit is located on Izmit Gulf, Marmara Sea, on the northwestern part of Anatolia. Throughout its history, it has always been a secure harbor on the intersection point of the main sea and land routes, and thus has always been an important center with commercial, military, industrial and social activities. It has hosted many historical periods, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantium, Seljukid, Ottoman and Turkish Republic respectively.
Transformation of Izmit: From ancient Capital to modern industrial city
Izmit was founded by Nicomedes I of Bithynia Kingdom in 264 BC (Çalık Ross 2007) with the name Nicomedia and became the capital city (Başaran 2010). Although today information related to the city’s Bithynia Kingdom period is limited, it is estimated that, since it was the center of management, it was a developed city with a grid plan and ancient harbor (ZeyrekAsal 2003).
In 74 BC, Nicomedes IV bequested city to Roman Empire. Thus, Bithynia became a state of Roman Empire whereas the Nicomedia became the capital city of the state (Çalık Ross 2007). Emperor Augustus played an important role in city’s public works. He built a temple in 29 BC. Due to the ancient sources, there was a road with columns between the temple and the harbor.
In 284 AC, Emperor Diocletian announces Nicomedia as the capital of Roman Empire (Çalık Ross 2007). During his rule, Diocletian built palaces, a royal mint, a weapon factory and a shipyard in the city (Başaran 2010). During this period, with the advantage of its strategic location, Nicomedia became the fourth biggest city of its era, after Rome, Antioch (Antakya) and Alexandria (Başaran 2010). City walls were also constructed in this period (Foss 1996).
However, in 330 A.D. Emperor Constantine announced Constantinopolis as the capital city and Nicomedia started to lose its importance. Severe earthquakes of 358, 362, 554 and 558 A.D also contributed this decline. Despite its decline, Nicomedia continued to be a key city in Byzantine Empire with its strategic location (Foss 1996; Kaya 2008).
During the time of Roman Empire and Byzantine, Nicomedia had always been a secure harbor. It was a naval base and an important trade port with shipyards, which was connecting oversea transportation and land transportation. Asia-Europe route, which connects East to West was passing through Nicomedia (Çalık Ross 2011).
Nicomedia was invaded by Turks and Byzantines and pass in others hands many times till the official Ottoman conquest dated back to 1338 (Başaran 2010; Kaya 2008). İzmit was called as ‘İznikmid’ during Ottoman period.
İznikmid kept its importance during Ottoman era as well. After the conquest, the city was highly damaged. Thus, it was immediately programmed to a hasty repair process. Restoration of citadel walls and construction of the Mosques, Medrese, Bath and shipyard in the citadel were the first activities executed by Turks after its conquest.
Between 16th and 19th centuries, despite the massive earthquakes dated as 1509, 1567, 1719, 1754 and 1756 İznikmid had continued to be an important city (Kaya 2008). It was the closest port to capital city Istanbul. Kervans (trade caravans) were arriving Iznikmid’s port first and then the products were being shipped to Istanbul from this port. Especially during the era of Suleyman the Magnificent (1520-1566), Iznikmid became an important commerce and social center with many monumental edifices like caravansarais, a külliye (building complex consists of mosque, school, bath, caravanserai, hospice and reservoir with public fountains) hans (inn) and hamams (public baths) (Başaran 2010). Construction of a modern shipyard during the era of Sultan Selim I (1512-1520); construction of royal palaces and pavilions during the era of Sultan Murat IV (1623-164); re-modernization of shipyard during the era of Sultan Selim III (1789-1807) and Sultan Mahmud II (1808-1839) were some events that refers to city’s significance in Ottoman Period (Başaran 2010).
19th century was the era of progress as the appearance of “westernization” and “modernization” efforts in Ottoman Empire. Starting form 1839, with reorganization reforms (Tanzimat Reformlari), physical structure of Iznikmid started to change as well as other Ottoman city centers. Renewal of the transportation network, changes in governmental and economic structure, regulations in public works and formation of immigrant quarters were the main events which changed Izmit plan in 19th century (Kaya, 2008).
Izmit’s importance as being a commerce hub both for land and sea routes had continued in 19th century. Moreover, a new way of transportation added to this hub during this century. In 1873, construction of Istanbul-Izmit railroad was completed. This railroad later continued to Ankara with the construction of Izmit-Ankara railroad in 1892 (Kaya, 2008). Moreover, existing roads were renewed and a new highway from Ankara was constructed.
As it is in many other Ottoman city centers, new building types such as government office, telegraph office, courthouse, police office, civil registry office and municipality, clock tower are introduced to the city as the result of changes in governmental and economic structure. First industrialization attempts also occurred in 19th century in Izmit. Izmit Cuha (drapery) production house was one of these attempts.
20th century was a breaking point not only for Iznikmid but also for the whole Ottoman Empire. Ottoman Empire dissolved after World War I (1914-1919) and Turkish War of Independence. In 1923, Turkish Republic was founded under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. However, years of wars left a damaged and ruined city centers behind. Iznikmid was one of these ruined cities. On the other hand, as it was in its history, Iznikmid was full of potentials for this new country as well. These potentials were also stated by Atatürk in 1923, during his visit to İzmit as: “…İzmit is one of the most valuable and important regions of Turkey. It is a very crucial city since it is like a district of an important city (Istanbul). So crucial since it was founded on an elegant bay of the world. Its surrounding and vicinage is very important, fertile and prosperous. Its sources are rich” (İnan, 1996).
In order to understand the importance of İzmit and SEKA Paper Factory during early republic era, it is important to understand the background information about the ideology of Turkish Republic (ZeyrekAsal, 2004).
Foundation of SEKA Paper Factory: Beginning of an Industrial City
Turkish Republic as a new country just out of long war years, was taking over the remains of Ottoman Empire, which can be listed as a bankrupted economy, inadequate transportation opportunities, insufficient human power and agriculture sources, as well as a ruined industry (Coskun 2003).
For the prospective independent country, economic independence was a must. Thus, just before proclamation of the Republic, Turkey Economic Congress (Türkiye Iktisat Kongresi) was organized in 1923 in order to discuss and take actions in regards of economic future of the country. In this congress, the necessity of economic development was underlined as the basis of country’s overall development, where as industrialization was the main tool for economic development.
On the other hand, Kemalist revolution was aiming to transform traditional society to an educated, cultured and modern nation (Ahmad 1996). An independent economy was not only necessary for economic development but also it was a booster to achieve the goal of civilization. Industrialization could be used as a tool for both economic and social transformation.
However, due to economic limitations of the era, industrialization ideas of Turkish Republic had to pend for 10 years. In 1933, first Five Year Industrialization Plan, was prepared. İzmit Paper Factory was an important part of this plan and was founded in 1934 as one of the first industrial investments of Turkish Government together with other investments on textile, iron-steel, glass, sugar and mining sectors.
These industrial facilities were not only composed of industrial production units, but also they had social sites which were offering a social life. They were not only serving to factory members. Their doors were open to whole citizens and offering a cultural and social life with their social buildings, sport facilities, movie theatres, infirmaries, schools and mosques.
Izmit Paper Factory was one of these factory complexes, which had expanded in time. 1st Paper Factory had started production in 1936 (Fig 01). This is followed by the opening of 2nd Paper Factory in 1944, 3rd in 1954, 4th in 1957 and 5th in 1960. The population of İzmit raised from 14.000 (SEKA Post 1966) to 90.000 and İzmit became an industrial city. In 1955, the name of the factory complexes became SEKA (Turkish Cellulose and Paper Factories Cooperation). Later, SEKA became an industrial network and spread to eight different regions in Anatolia.
While number of factory buildings were increasing in SEKA’s Izmit campus, social site was also expanding to the campus limits. SEKA Izmit’s social site was consisting of lodgings, social building, infirmary, open and closed movie theater, retail society, sport halls, swimming raft on the see, nursery, school and mosque (Fig 02 and 03). Moreover, SEKA has also a Summer Camp by the Sapanca Lake, which was offering its members a recreation area where they can spend 15 days during their holiday. Campus life in SEKA Izmit was full of entertainment activities such as music concerts, balls, parties, fests, theatre and movie shows; annual celebration meetings; memorial ceremonies and charity activities. SEKA's social activities were not limited to the campus boundaries. The impact of the activities was overflowing to the city. Shows performed in SEKA was appreciated very much by all citizens, as well as SEKA members.
The lifestyle in SEKA created a “SEKA Culture” and “SEKA Identity”, which all members, families and Izmit citizens were proud to be a part of it.
1980s was a turning point in industry in Turkey as it was around the World Sönmez 1999, p. 15). Due to the economic and political depression, government stopped investing on the industry and started to privatize government owned factories. Parallel to the de-industrialization period in Turkey, in 1998, SEKA factories were taken in the scope of privatization; however, workers in the companies resisted the decision and occupied the factories. This resulted in the withdrawal of the decision. However, this resistance could only delay the absolute end. In 2000, shut down and privatization of SEKA came into the agenda again with the excuse of money loss (Soykan 2005). Execution of this shut down decision should be evaluated in consideration with era’s political conjuncture, which was based on a conservative tradition and was adapting ‘Ottoman’ for the identity of the state, rather than ‘Kemalism’.
In 2005, SEKA Izmit Campus was privatized and and the premises of the complex were transferred to Kocaeli (Izmit) Municipality. Same year, some premises of the complex are registered in 2005 by Bursa Protection of Cultural and Natural Assessment Regional Committee (Bursa Kultur ve Tabiat Varliklarini Koruma Bolge) while some other were hastily demolished.
Since its privatization, a partial approach is adopted for the management of the site. Today 1st Paper Factory is being used as a Paper Museum and Science Center, 2nd Paper Factory is abandoned, 3rd and 5th Paper Factory is being used as movie studios, SEKA’s port is being used as a public park, SEKA Park, social building is SEKA Park Hotel, some lodgings and movie theatres is demolished, where as some lodgings are being used as some public offices.
Stratification of SEKA Premises
Current physical and spatial structure of a city is a result of physical existences, continuities, changes, formations and transformations at its previous eras. In addition, physical remains from previous periods of urban settlements are actually the reflections and symbols of previous times and memories.
The term stratification can be defined as the materialization of time and memory in space through the act of ‘layering' and is the superimposition of many strata (Bilgin Altınöz 2013). Historical urban settlements are composed various strata from their previous eras where this act of layering can be actualized.
Izmit, is a typical respresentative of these kind of urban settlements with its rooted history and urban archaeology. Nicomedia is the earliest strata of Izmit urban settlement, which can be physically tracked on traveler’s notes and drawings, maps on literature sources (Izmit Analitik Etudleri 1970; Öztüre 1981 and Kaya 2008) and archaeological surveys.
The first and most extensive archaeological survey related to Nicomedia was carried out in 1939 in SEKA premises. During the foundation excavations of SEKA’s 2nd Paper Factory in 1939, incidentally, some archaeological remains had confronted. Friedrich Karl Dörner, who was an archaeologist in German Archaeology Institute in Istanbul was invited to the site. He conducted salvage archaeological studies in this area. He published his findings in the article named “Archaelogische Funde aus der Turkei” in the journal of Archaologischer Anzeiger (Dörner 1939). The article was also including Dörner’s sketches.
Basaran (2010) narrates Dörner’s article in his archaeological report prepared for SEKA revision plan. According to Başaran’s report, Dörner remarks in his article that despite its urgent necessity, a systematic archaeological excavation has never been conducted in the city. Ancient buildings were being used as stone sources for new constructions. The area was announced as a prohibited military zone after the war of Turkish Independence. This situation was preventing any type of archaeological works in Nicomedia. Dörner also states that Istanbul German Archaeology Institute got the chance to follow foundation excavations of 2nd Paper Factory and encountered historical findings (ancient wall foundations, architectural remains and statue parts) on today’s SEKA premises.
He conducted his excavations in four different areas:
1.The north part of SEKA Premises: In this area, Dörner encountered an ancient cemetery and remains of marble flooring, terra-cotta tubes, water canal traces, domed corridors, spaces with columns and Corinthian column capitals with fine workmanship which might refer to an ancient bath (Fig 04 and 06).
2. On the foundation hole of 2nd Paper Factory, Dörner determined some ancient wall remains, which are parallel and relatively running close to each other. Dörner stated that these architectural elements might be referring to a dwelling zone.
3.On the west side of the foundation hole of 2nd paper factory, ancient foundation walls, a fountain and a well remains were excavated. Unfortunately, in his article Dörner states that, it was impossible to trace the connection of these ancient walls since the walls were removed during foundation excavations (Dörner 1939). The findings in this area were also including many column drums and capitals, which may refer to a columned courtyard or portico. Başaran states that the monumental building residues in this area might refer to the palace of Diocletian, which he built for his daughter and wife (Basaran 2010) (Fig 04 and 07).
4. Dörner also had an opportunity to observe the excavation works conducted in 1st Paper Factory. While Dörner was in Izmit, an additional building was being added to south of 1st Paper Factory. In this area, Dörner encountered thick wall residues from Roman period. However, he states that, these ancient wall remains were destroyed during the construction with dynamites. Here, he also encountered oak wood pieces, stone and brick wall remains.
Although Dörner’s report does not give any detailed information about a fifth excavation site, Dörner’s notes on his drawing and the photographs which were taken during archaeological excavations gives us some information about a fifth excavation zone. This zone was marked as ‘remains of ancient city walls’ on Dörner’s drawing and is located at lodging area of SEKA premises (Fig 05 and 08). However, neither Dörner’s article nor sources in the literature includes any information about this site. In 2003, an archaeological excavation is conducted in this area as well, however no detailed information is gathered related to this excavation. Today this site is still visible and registered as 1st degree archaeological site (Fig 09).
Besides these architectural findings, various important assets were also excavated in SEKA premises. Plastic statues, portrait busts, Emperor Diocletian’s head, small statutes, gravestones, marble furniture pieces and amphoras were some of many important portable assets (Ulugün, BakanAksoy 2007). These assets were stored in a warehouse during the excavations, later, dispatched to Izmit Directorate of National Education for their storage. In 1947, these assets were transferred to Istanbul Archaeological Museum (ZeyrekAsal, 2004).
Till 2005, except for some salvage archaeologies executed by Izmit Archaeological Museum, no archaeological study was not conducted in İzmit. In 2005, with the approval of Ministry of Culture and Tourism, an archaeological geophysical surface survey was conducted by The Department of Archaeology, Kocaeli University. With this survey, many cultural assets were recorded around İzmit. Ross states that, this survey reveals that today’s Izmit is laid right on the strata of ancient Izmit, Nicomedia (Ross 2011). This survey was conducted within the borders of SEKA premises as well and three zones were marked as the zones with ancient archaeological assets (Fig. 04). Today, whole SEKA premises are registered as 3rd degree archaeological site.
Ottoman Era is another significant stratum in Izmit’s urban archaeology. The built environment of Ottoman Iznikmid was consisting monumental buildings such as kulliyes, kervansarays, mosques, baths; civil buildings such as traditional dwellings and open spaces such as roads or cemeteries (Fig 05). Today, the built environment of Ottoman Era’s Iznikmid is still trackable via the existing buildings or literature sources (Izmit Analitik Etudleri 1970; Öztüre 1981 and Kaya 2008).
The stratum of Ottoman era in SEKA premises is consisting of three main elements. Ankara-Istanbul highway and the railroad, which forms the northern and southern borders of SEKA premises still exists and are two main transportation routes between Ankara and Istanbul (Fig 04). The other strata, which is an Armenian cemetery, including the tomb of Tökeli Imre, the King of Hungary is not current anymore. According to Polatel (2010) and Başaran (2010) this cemetery was located at the south of SEKA premises, on a very close area where ancient cemetery was existing.
The third stratum is in the stratification of SEKA premises is dated to the production era of SEKA Industrial Campus. The value of this third strata is not only limited to playing an important role in Izmit’s urban archaeology. It is also very valuable as being one of the first industrial facilities in the history of Turkish Republic with its symbolic, technologic, and socio-cultural values.
The latest stratum of SEKA premises is the current situation of today’s SEKA campus. The built environment of SEKA campus has started to change after its closure. Although, main physical structure of the campus has continued to exist till today, many buildings were lost, abandoned or gained new functions too. Thus, the structure of the campus has transformed since its closure. Moreover, since SEKA was not a production zone and a workplace anymore, SEKA’s place in collective memories were re-shaped. Hence, he semantic structure of the campus has also changed after its closure. As a consequence of this physical and semantic transformations, a new stratum of SEKA has formed, which is dated to its closure.
Preserving and Presenting Multi-Layered SEKA
Preservation of multi-layered built environments is an open to discussion issue, bringing many challenges along. What and how to preserve is the main questions in this issue. Although, consciously or intendedly, choosing one strata over the other and preserving the chosen one while destroying the others is still an appealing approach, obviously, it is not the proper answer to these what and how questions.
Successive strata are the physical reflections of continuity of time and place. Each stratum is an indispensable piece of this continuity, in which one cannot be more important than the other. Loss of one creates an irremediable damage as well as physical and semantic lacunas in this continuity. Then, how one can preserve successive strata?
Current discussions about SEKA’s multi-layered built environment is around the preservation of two strata: Nicomedia as archaeological heritage or SEKA facilities as Industrial heritage. Some archaeologists working in this area argue that, since the strata Nicomedia is very important with is documentation value and foundations of SEKA is damaging the strata of Nicomedia, SEKA should be removed after its documentation. However, lost of the industrial heritage of SEKA, which still conserves its symbolic value and liveliness in collective memories, would lead to a lacuna not only in the urban archaeology of the site, but also in the strata of collective memories.
On the other hand, SEKA premises as an industrial heritage site, is being managed by a partite approach. Horizontal integrity of SEKA premises is fragmented, where some of its buildings were destroyed, some were still abandon and some were being re-used with various functions. Vertical integrity of strata is not on the preservation agenda too, since there is no systematic or holistic study towards preserving and presenting successive strata of SEKA.
Today, preservation and presentation of SEKA’s previous strata can be listed as below:
1. SEKA Paper Museum is a link to SEKA’s production era.
2. In SEKA Paper Museum, there is a special section for SEKA’s Nicomedia strata. This section is located on the south of 1st Paper Factory, where Dörner encountered thick wall residues from Roman period and oak rust.
3. Although SEKA’s north and south borders of Istanbul-Ankara highway and Istanbul-Ankara railway are strata from area’s Ottoman Era, their historical context is disregarded.
4. Kocaeli Municipality, charged Ka.Ba. Architecture firm to prepare a preservation project for SEKA premises. In this project, Ka. Ba. Architectural Firm planned an archeo-park on the north of SEKA premises, where Dörner had excavated archaeological residues of a thermal building. However, during the site visits in January 04, the planned archeo-park area was planted by Kocaeli Municipality (Fig 10).
5. 1st Degree Archaeological site by the lodging area, which was marked as “Remains of Ancient City Walls” is idle, open to all weather conditions.
SEKA Industrial Heritage site has a significant place in multi-layered Izmit Urban Settlement. It is like the representative sample of Izmit’s stratification, which includes the traces of ancient Nicomedia, Ottoman Iznikmid and Turkish Republic’s industrial city.
However, discussions on the stratification of SEKA premises are concentrated around remains from two periods: ancient remains from Nicomedia and industrial remains from SEKA. Although each layer of the history is equally important in the continuity of time and place, still different ideas about choosing one layer over others makes SEKA premises an area of conflict. Moreover, yet, there is no systematic and holistic scientific study towards the relation and co existence of different layers under and on SEKA premises. Current studies, which is gathered from literature studies and salvage archaeological excavations gives us very partite information about area’s stratification. Unfortunately, till today no systematic and holistic urban archaeological study was executed in the area as well.
In order to define strategies to preserve the strata and their co existence in SEKA and İzmit, an urban archaeology study is a must. By this, vertical and horizontal traces of SEKA premises’ stratification can be integrated to contribute the co existence of its various layers. A semantic and chronological link between its bottom to top strata should be formed to create the historical sustainability and identity of the area. Horizontally, physical reflections of previous periods, which are being traced locally on different areas of SEKA campus (such as highway and railroad from Ottoman period or the excavation site from ancient period) should be linked to each other, to emphasize that they are connected to each other as a part of a whole, rather than random pieces. Last but not the least, in order to contribute historical continuity, new memories should be created on the top stratum (which is the reflection of today) with an awareness of area’s history and identity.
 The ideas and principles of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder and first president of the Turkish Republic, are termed Kemalism (Oxfordislamicstudies.com 2016)
 According to the statistics of Turkish Statistical Institute (Tuik.gov.tr 2016), 1965, general population of İzmit was 89.547.
 In order to ease to follow the strata in SEKA premises and İzmit, two maps are created by the visualizing the data gathered from current literature. See Figures 04 and 05 respectively for these maps.
Figures and Captions*
Fig. 01: SEKA İzmit 1st Paper Factory, 1930s (Image from SEKA Paper Museum Documentation Center Archive).
Fig. 02: SEKA İzmit 1st Paper Factory, 1930s (Image from SEKA Paper Museum Documentation Center Archive).
Fig. 03: SEKA İzmit 1st Paper Factory, late 1960s (Image from SEKA Paper Museum Documentation Center Archive).
Fig. 04: Map showing the strata on İzmit Urban Settlement.
Fig. 05: Map showing the strata on SEKA Premises.
Fig. 06: Thermal remains, which were encountered on the north part of SEKA premises, during the salvage archaeology conducted in 1939 (Image from SEKA Paper Museum Documentation Center Archive).
Fig. 07: Remains, which were encountered on the west side of the foundation hole of 2nd paper factory, during the salvage archaeology conducted in 1939 (Image from SEKA Paper Museum Documentation Center Archive).
Fig. 08: ‘Remains of ancient city walls’, which were as marked on Dörner’s drawing and located at lodging area of SEKA premises (Image from İstanbul Archaeological Museum Archive)
Fig. 09: Current situation of 1st archaeological site in SEKA premises, January 2016 (Photograph by Bilge Köse)
Fig. 10: Planted area, which was planned as an archeo-park by Ka. Ba. Architecture Firm.
*Figures 01,02, 03, 06, 07, 08, 09 and 10 cannot be published online due to copyright restrictions.
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Istanbul Archaeology Muesum Archive
SEKA Paper Musesum Documentation Center Archive
Strata on Izmit Urban Settlement (Base Map: Google Earth Image, provider: Digital Globe, 2016)
Strata on SEKA Premises.(Base Map: Google Earth Image, provider: Digital Globe, 2016)
Strata on Izmit Urban Settlement (Base Map: Google Earth Image, provider: Digital Globe, 2016)